When it comes to protecting your most valuable possessions, not just any safe will do. Fireproof and waterproof safes offer unparalleled security against two of the most devastating threats to your home: fire and water damage. With a multitude of options available, finding the perfect safe that meets all your needs can be a daunting task. This comprehensive guide will help you navigate through the essential features and considerations, ensuring you make an informed decision.

Importance of Fireproof and Waterproof Safes

In today’s world, the security of valuable items is paramount. Whether it’s crucial documents, irreplaceable heirlooms, or important digital media, safeguarding these items from potential disasters like fires or floods is essential. Fireproof and waterproof safes provide a reliable solution, offering protection against these threats and ensuring peace of mind. Investing in a high-quality safe means that in the event of a fire or water damage, your most important belongings remain secure and intact.

The purpose of this article is to guide homeowners in choosing the best fireproof and waterproof safe for their needs. With various options available on the market, it can be challenging to determine which safe offers the best combination of features, durability, and value. This article aims to simplify that process by highlighting key considerations, analyzing essential features, and providing expert advice on selecting a safe that meets your specific requirements. By the end of this article, you will be equipped with the knowledge to make an informed decision and protect your valuables effectively.

About INKAS Safes

INKAS Safes is a trusted name in the security industry, renowned for its high-quality safes designed to provide maximum protection against fire and water damage. With years of experience and a commitment to excellence, INKAS Safes offers a range of products that combine advanced technology with robust construction. Our safes are rigorously tested and certified to meet stringent standards, ensuring they deliver the utmost security for your valuable possessions. At INKAS Safes, we understand the importance of protecting what matters most to you, and we are dedicated to providing solutions that offer both reliability and peace of mind.

Key Features to Consider

When selecting a fireproof and waterproof safe for home use, it’s important to evaluate various features to ensure the best protection for your valuables. Here are the key aspects you should consider:

Fire Resistance

Fire resistance is one of the most critical features of a safe. The level of fire resistance is measured by the temperature a safe can withstand and the duration it can maintain that protection. Look for safes that have been tested and certified by independent organizations such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL) or Intertek. These certifications indicate that the safe can protect its contents from high temperatures for a specified period, typically ranging from 30 minutes to 2 hours. A UL 72 Class 350 rating, for instance, ensures that the interior temperature of the safe will not exceed 350°F when exposed to external temperatures of up to 1700°F for one hour.

Water Resistance

Water resistance is equally important, especially if you live in an area prone to flooding or have concerns about water damage from other sources, such as burst pipes or firefighting efforts. A good waterproof safe should be able to withstand submersion for a certain period without allowing water to penetrate. Look for safes that have undergone rigorous testing to earn certifications like the IPX7 or IPX8 rating, indicating they can withstand immersion in water for a prolonged duration. Some safes also feature water-resistant seals and barriers that protect the contents from humidity and moisture.

Size and Capacity

The size and capacity of the safe should align with your storage needs and the available space in your home. Consider what items you plan to store, such as documents, jewelry, digital media, or firearms, and choose a safe with adequate internal space to accommodate these items. Safes come in various sizes, from compact models for small items to larger ones that can hold bulkier valuables. Additionally, think about the future and whether you might need extra space as your collection of valuables grows.

Locking Mechanism

The locking mechanism is a crucial aspect of a safe’s security. There are several types of locking mechanisms available, each with its advantages:

  • Combination Locks: Traditional and reliable, these locks require a specific sequence of numbers to open.
  • Electronic Keypads: Easy to use and quick to open, these locks often allow for multiple user codes.
  • Biometric Locks: These offer high security by using fingerprint recognition to grant access.
  • Key Locks: Often used in combination with other locking mechanisms for added security.

Choose a locking mechanism that balances convenience with security, ensuring that the safe is both easy for you to access and difficult for unauthorized users to breach.

Construction Material

The construction material of a safe affects its durability and ability to withstand fire and water damage. High-quality safes are typically made from thick steel, providing robust protection against physical attacks and environmental threats. Look for safes with a solid steel body and door, reinforced with fire-resistant insulation materials. The thickness of the steel and the quality of the construction will determine the safe’s ability to protect its contents under extreme conditions.

Certification Standards

Certification standards are a testament to a safe’s reliability and effectiveness. When evaluating safes, look for certifications from reputable testing organizations such as UL, Intertek, or the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). These certifications ensure that the safe has passed rigorous testing for fire resistance, water resistance, and overall security. Common certifications to look for include:

  • UL 72: Fire resistance rating indicating the safe can protect paper documents at high temperatures.
  • UL 687: Rating for burglary resistance.
  • EN 1047-1: European standard for fire-resistant safes.
  • ETL Verified: Indicates the safe has been tested for water resistance and fire protection.

By understanding these key features and their importance, you can make a well-informed decision when choosing the best fireproof and waterproof safe for your home.

Top Considerations for Fireproof and Waterproof Safes

Selecting the right fireproof and waterproof safe involves understanding and evaluating various features that contribute to the overall security and functionality of the safe. Here, we provide an overview of key features and a comparison of popular options to help you make an informed decision.

Overview of Key Features

When choosing a fireproof and waterproof safe, the following features are crucial:

  1. Fire Resistance: Ensures protection of contents from high temperatures and flames. Look for safes with UL or ETL fire ratings, indicating they can withstand specific temperatures for a certain period.
  2. Water Resistance: Protects valuables from water damage due to floods, firefighting efforts, or plumbing issues. Safes with IPX7 or IPX8 ratings offer strong water resistance.
  3. Locking Mechanism: Includes combination locks, electronic keypads, biometric locks, and key locks. Choose a mechanism that offers a balance of security and ease of access.
  4. Size and Capacity: Depends on the items you plan to store. Consider both current and future storage needs.
  5. Construction Material: Typically made of thick steel with fire-resistant insulation. Ensure the material can withstand physical attacks and environmental threats.
  6. Certification Standards: Look for safes with certifications from reputable organizations like UL, Intertek, or CEN to ensure reliable protection.

Comparison of Popular Options

To provide a comprehensive comparison, let’s look at some of the most popular types of fireproof and waterproof safes and their features:

FeatureSafe Type ASafe Type BSafe Type C
Fire ResistanceUL 72 Class 350 for 1 hourUL 72 Class 350 for 2 hoursETL Verified for 1 hour
Water ResistanceIPX7 (up to 1 hour underwater)IPX8 (up to 2 hours underwater)Waterproof seal, ETL Verified
Locking MechanismElectronic keypad with backup keyBiometric lock with keypad backupCombination lock with key backup
Size and CapacityMedium (1 cubic foot)Large (2 cubic feet)Small (0.5 cubic feet)
Construction Material12-gauge steel, fire insulation14-gauge steel, advanced insulation10-gauge steel, fire insulation
Certification StandardsUL, ETLUL, IntertekUL, CEN
Additional FeaturesInterior lighting, adjustable shelvesTamper-proof hinges, bolt-down kitPortable design, pry-resistant door

Safe Type A:

  • Fire Resistance: UL 72 Class 350 rating for 1 hour, protecting paper documents and other heat-sensitive items.
  • Water Resistance: Rated IPX7, can withstand submersion in water for up to 1 hour.
  • Locking Mechanism: Features an electronic keypad for easy access, with a backup key for emergencies.
  • Size and Capacity: Medium size (1 cubic foot), suitable for a variety of items.
  • Construction Material: Made from 12-gauge steel with fire-resistant insulation, offering robust protection.
  • Certification Standards: Certified by UL and ETL, ensuring reliable fire and water protection.
  • Additional Features: Includes interior lighting and adjustable shelves for better organization.

Safe Type B:

  • Fire Resistance: UL 72 Class 350 rating for 2 hours, providing extended protection in high-temperature environments.
  • Water Resistance: Rated IPX8, capable of withstanding submersion in water for up to 2 hours.
  • Locking Mechanism: Utilizes a biometric lock for high security, with a keypad backup for convenience.
  • Size and Capacity: Large size (2 cubic feet), ideal for storing bulkier items or larger quantities of valuables.
  • Construction Material: Constructed from 14-gauge steel with advanced fire insulation, designed for enhanced durability.
  • Certification Standards: Certified by UL and Intertek, meeting rigorous safety standards.
  • Additional Features: Equipped with tamper-proof hinges and a bolt-down kit for added security.

Safe Type C:

  • Fire Resistance: ETL Verified for 1 hour, ensuring protection against fire hazards.
  • Water Resistance: Features a waterproof seal, ETL Verified for water protection.
  • Locking Mechanism: Combination lock with a key backup, offering reliable security.
  • Size and Capacity: Small size (0.5 cubic feet), perfect for compact storage needs.
  • Construction Material: Built from 10-gauge steel with fire insulation, providing sturdy protection.
  • Certification Standards: Certified by UL and CEN, indicating adherence to high safety standards.
  • Additional Features: Designed to be portable with a pry-resistant door for added security.

By comparing these key features and options, you can choose a fireproof and waterproof safe that best meets your needs and provides optimal protection for your valuables.

Detailed Feature Analysis

When selecting a fireproof and waterproof safe, understanding the detailed features and their implications is crucial for making an informed decision. This section delves into the specifics of fire resistance, water resistance, locking mechanisms, material and build quality, and size and capacity options.

Fire Resistance: Standards and Testing

Fire resistance is a key feature of safes, protecting your valuables from high temperatures and flames. The effectiveness of fire-resistant safes is determined through rigorous testing and certification by independent organizations.

Standards and Testing Methods:

  • UL 72 Standard: The Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 72 standard is widely recognized. It involves exposing the safe to high temperatures (up to 1700°F) for a specific duration (ranging from 30 minutes to 4 hours). The interior temperature must not exceed 350°F, ensuring paper documents remain undamaged.
  • ETL Verification: The ETL mark indicates that the safe has been tested for fire resistance, often similar to UL standards. ETL testing ensures that the safe can protect contents at high temperatures for specified periods.
  • JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards): These standards include rigorous testing for fire endurance, often similar to UL and ETL standards.

When choosing a fireproof safe, look for certifications like UL 72 or ETL Verified to ensure it meets high fire-resistance standards.

Water Resistance: What to Look For

Water resistance protects your valuables from water damage due to floods, burst pipes, or firefighting efforts. Understanding the level of water resistance and relevant certifications is essential.

Key Aspects to Consider:

  • IP Ratings: The International Protection (IP) rating system indicates the level of water resistance. For example, an IPX7 rating means the safe can withstand immersion in water up to 1 meter for 30 minutes, while an IPX8 rating indicates it can endure longer periods under water.
  • Sealing Mechanisms: Safes with advanced sealing mechanisms, such as rubber gaskets or waterproof seals, provide additional protection against water ingress.
  • ETL Water Resistance: ETL also tests safes for water resistance. ETL Verified safes ensure they can protect contents when submerged or exposed to water spray for a specified time.

When evaluating water-resistant safes, prioritize those with high IP ratings or ETL water resistance certifications to ensure optimal protection.

Locking Mechanisms: Types and Security Levels

The locking mechanism of a safe is crucial for security, determining how easily it can be accessed or tampered with. Various types of locking mechanisms offer different levels of security and convenience.

Types of Locking Mechanisms:

  • Combination Locks: Traditional and reliable, these locks require a sequence of numbers to open. They are mechanical and do not require batteries.
  • Electronic Keypads: These locks offer quick and easy access with a user-programmable code. They often have a backup key in case of electronic failure.
  • Biometric Locks: Providing high security, these locks use fingerprint recognition to grant access. They are ideal for quick and secure access, often used in conjunction with electronic keypads.
  • Key Locks: Simple and effective, these locks use physical keys. They are often used in combination with other locking mechanisms for added security.

Consider the ease of use, reliability, and security level of the locking mechanism when choosing a safe. Electronic and biometric locks offer convenience, while combination locks are known for their durability and reliability.

Material and Build Quality

The construction material and build quality of a safe are critical for its overall durability and protective capabilities. High-quality materials ensure the safe can withstand physical attacks, fire, and water damage.

Key Considerations:

  • Steel Thickness: The thickness of the steel used in the safe’s body and door is a primary indicator of its strength. Thicker steel provides better protection against physical attacks. Look for safes made from 10-gauge to 14-gauge steel.
  • Fire-Resistant Insulation: The type of insulation used between the safe’s walls is crucial for fire protection. Materials like gypsum or ceramic fibers can significantly enhance fire resistance.
  • Hinges and Bolts: High-quality safes feature internal or protected hinges to prevent tampering. The number and size of locking bolts also contribute to the safe’s security.

A safe with robust construction and high-quality materials will provide better protection and durability, ensuring long-term security for your valuables.

Size and Capacity Options

Choosing the right size and capacity for your safe depends on your specific storage needs and available space in your home.

Factors to Consider:

  • Internal Space: Determine what items you plan to store, such as documents, jewelry, digital media, or firearms. Ensure the safe has enough internal space to accommodate these items comfortably.
  • External Dimensions: Consider the external dimensions of the safe to ensure it fits in the designated location within your home. Measure the space where you plan to place the safe and compare it with the safe’s dimensions.
  • Future Needs: Think about future storage needs. Choosing a slightly larger safe than currently needed can accommodate additional valuables over time.

Safes come in various sizes, from compact models for small items to larger units for bulkier valuables. Selecting the right size and capacity ensures efficient use of space and optimal protection.

By thoroughly analyzing these features, you can select a fireproof and waterproof safe that best meets your needs and provides reliable protection for your valuables.

Factors to Consider When Choosing a Safe

Choosing the right fireproof and waterproof safe for your home involves considering several important factors beyond just the features. Here are some critical aspects to keep in mind:


Your budget will significantly influence your choice of a safe. Prices for fireproof and waterproof safes vary widely based on size, features, and brand. Here’s how to approach budgeting for a safe:

  • Basic Models: If you’re looking for a safe with fundamental fire and water resistance, basic models are available at a lower price range. These safes typically offer standard protection and are suitable for storing essential documents and small valuables.
  • Mid-Range Options: These safes provide a balance of advanced features and affordability. They often come with better fire and water resistance ratings, more robust construction, and additional security features like electronic keypads or biometric locks.
  • High-End Safes: For maximum security and protection, high-end safes come with advanced features, superior materials, and extended certifications. These safes are ideal for storing high-value items and offer the best fire and water resistance, along with top-notch locking mechanisms.

When setting your budget, consider the value of the items you intend to protect and weigh the cost of the safe against the potential loss from fire or water damage.

Specific Needs and Preferences

Your specific needs and preferences will play a crucial role in selecting the right safe. Here are some aspects to consider:

  • Type of Items: Determine what you will store in the safe. Important documents, jewelry, digital media, and firearms may require different types of safes with specific interior features like shelves, drawers, or special compartments.
  • Accessibility: Consider how often you need to access the safe. If you need frequent access, an electronic keypad or biometric lock may be more convenient than a traditional combination lock.
  • Security Level: Evaluate the level of security you need. For high-value items, look for safes with advanced locking mechanisms, thicker steel construction, and additional anti-tamper features.
  • Portability: If you need to move the safe occasionally, consider a smaller, more portable model. For permanent installations, a heavier and larger safe may offer better protection.

Understanding your specific needs will help narrow down the options and ensure you choose a safe that meets your requirements.

Installation Location

The location where you plan to install the safe is another critical consideration:

  • Space Availability: Measure the space where you intend to place the safe to ensure it fits comfortably. Consider the safe’s external dimensions, including height, width, and depth.
  • Accessibility: Choose a location that provides easy access while maintaining security. For instance, a safe placed in a hidden closet or a built-in wall safe can offer both convenience and discretion.
  • Environmental Factors: Avoid placing the safe in areas prone to moisture, such as basements, unless the safe has strong water resistance. Also, consider locations less likely to be affected by intense heat in case of a fire.
  • Anchoring Options: For added security, consider bolting the safe to the floor or wall. Ensure the installation location allows for secure anchoring, which can prevent theft by making it difficult to move the safe.

Selecting an appropriate installation location enhances the security and usability of the safe.

Warranty and Customer Support

A reliable warranty and robust customer support are essential factors to consider:

  • Warranty Coverage: Look for safes that come with a comprehensive warranty covering fire and water damage, defects in materials and workmanship, and sometimes even theft. A good warranty indicates the manufacturer’s confidence in the product’s quality and durability.
  • Customer Support: Evaluate the manufacturer’s customer support services. Responsive and helpful customer support can assist with installation, troubleshooting, and maintenance issues. Check for customer reviews and ratings to gauge the quality of support provided.
  • Replacement Guarantees: Some manufacturers offer replacement guarantees if the safe fails to protect its contents during a fire or flood. This type of assurance can provide additional peace of mind.

Ensuring good warranty coverage and reliable customer support helps safeguard your investment and ensures that you can get assistance when needed.

By considering these factors—budget, specific needs and preferences, installation location, and warranty and customer support—you can choose a fireproof and waterproof safe that best suits your requirements and provides the highest level of protection for your valuables.

Maintenance and Care Tips

Proper maintenance and care of your fireproof and waterproof safe are crucial to ensure its long-term effectiveness and reliability. Here are some essential tips to keep your safe in optimal condition:

Regular Inspections

Regular inspections help identify potential issues before they become serious problems. Start by examining the exterior condition for any signs of physical damage, such as dents, scratches, or corrosion. Ensuring the exterior is intact is vital as it indicates there are no weak points that could compromise the safe’s integrity.

Next, inspect the seals and gaskets around the door. These components are critical for maintaining the safe’s fireproof and waterproof properties, so check that they are not cracked, broken, or worn out. Additionally, testing the locking mechanism regularly is essential. For combination locks, make sure the dial turns without resistance, and for electronic or biometric locks, verify that they respond correctly and securely.

Lastly, check the interior of the safe for signs of moisture or mildew, which could indicate a failure in the waterproofing seal. Ensure that shelves, drawers, and other interior features are in good condition. Regular inspections can prevent minor issues from escalating and ensure that your safe remains effective in protecting your valuables.

Cleaning and Upkeep

Keeping your safe clean and well-maintained enhances its longevity and performance. For exterior cleaning, use a soft, damp cloth to remove dust and dirt. Avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive cleaners, as these can damage the finish. For the interior, a soft, dry cloth can be used to remove any dust or debris. If necessary, a mild, non-abrasive cleaner can clean interior surfaces, but ensure the interior is completely dry before closing the safe to prevent moisture buildup.

Maintaining the hinges and bolts is also important. Periodically lubricate these components with a light machine oil or a silicone-based lubricant to ensure they operate smoothly. This will help in keeping the safe’s door functioning correctly and prevent rust or wear from compromising the locking mechanism.

Battery Replacement for Electronic Locks

For safes equipped with electronic locks, regularly replacing the batteries is essential to ensure reliable operation. Check the battery indicator regularly, if your safe has one, to monitor the battery level. It is advisable to replace the batteries at least once a year, even if the indicator shows sufficient power, to prevent unexpected lockouts.

When replacing the batteries, follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully. Typically, this involves opening the battery compartment, removing the old batteries, and inserting new ones. Use high-quality, long-lasting batteries to ensure the best performance. After replacing the batteries, test the electronic lock to ensure it functions correctly and that all settings, such as access codes, are retained.

By following these maintenance and care tips, you can ensure that your fireproof and waterproof safe remains in excellent condition, providing reliable protection for your valuables for many years. Regular inspections, proper cleaning, and timely battery replacements are simple yet effective ways to maintain the integrity and functionality of your safe.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Choosing and maintaining a fireproof and waterproof safe can raise several questions. Here are some common concerns and their solutions:

How do I know if a safe is truly fireproof and waterproof?

To ensure a safe is genuinely fireproof and waterproof, look for certifications from reputable testing organizations such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and Intertek (ETL). A UL 72 rating indicates the safe has been tested for fire resistance, while ETL verification often includes both fire and water resistance testing. Safes with these certifications have undergone rigorous testing to meet high standards of protection.

What should I do if I forget the combination or lose the key to my safe?

If you forget the combination or lose the key, refer to the manufacturer’s guidelines for recovery options. Many safes come with a master reset code or a backup key. Contacting the manufacturer’s customer support can also help; they may provide instructions or send a professional locksmith to assist you. Always register your safe upon purchase to facilitate easier assistance in such situations.

Can I install my safe in any location within my home?

While you can place your safe in various locations, some spots are better than others. Avoid areas prone to high moisture, such as basements, unless the safe is highly water-resistant. Ideal locations include closets or offices where the safe can be easily accessed yet remains discreet. Ensure the safe can be securely anchored to the floor or wall to prevent theft.

How often should I replace the batteries in my electronic lock?

It’s advisable to replace the batteries in your electronic lock at least once a year to prevent unexpected lockouts. Regularly check the battery indicator, if available, and replace the batteries when they show low power. Use high-quality, long-lasting batteries and follow the manufacturer’s instructions for replacement.

What steps should I take if my safe is exposed to water or fire?

If your safe has been exposed to water or fire, do not open it immediately. Allow it to cool down and dry out completely to avoid further damage to the contents. Contact the manufacturer for specific instructions on how to proceed, as they might recommend professional assistance to safely open and assess the safe’s condition.

Is it necessary to bolt down my safe?

Bolting down your safe is highly recommended for added security. Anchoring the safe to the floor or wall makes it significantly harder for thieves to remove it from your home. Many safes come with pre-drilled holes and hardware for bolting down, and following the manufacturer’s instructions will ensure a secure installation.

How can I maintain the fireproof and waterproof features of my safe?

To maintain the fireproof and waterproof features, regularly inspect the seals and gaskets around the door for any signs of wear or damage. Keep the safe clean and dry, and follow the manufacturer’s maintenance guidelines. Avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive cleaners that could damage the protective coatings.

What is the best way to organize the contents inside my safe?

Organizing the contents of your safe helps maximize space and ensures easy access to your valuables. Use shelves, drawers, or compartments to separate different types of items. Store frequently used items in easily accessible spots and place less frequently used items towards the back. Consider using fireproof and waterproof document bags for added protection.

Can I move my safe to a different location after installation?

While it is possible to move a safe after installation, it can be challenging, especially for larger, heavier models. If you need to relocate your safe, consider hiring professional movers experienced in handling safes. Ensure the new location is suitable and secure for reinstallation.

By addressing these common concerns and solutions, you can ensure the effective use and maintenance of your fireproof and waterproof safe, providing optimal protection for your valuables.


Recap of Key Points

Selecting the best fireproof and waterproof safe for your home is crucial for protecting your valuable items from potential disasters. In this guide, we covered essential features and considerations to help you make an informed decision.

  1. Importance of Fireproof and Waterproof Safes: Safes provide essential protection against fires and floods, safeguarding documents, jewelry, digital media, and other valuables.
  2. Key Features to Consider: Evaluate fire resistance, water resistance, size and capacity, locking mechanisms, construction material, and certification standards. Certifications from organizations like UL and ETL ensure the safe meets rigorous testing standards.
  3. Top Considerations for Fireproof and Waterproof Safes: Understand the various features and compare popular options to find the best balance of protection and functionality.
  4. Detailed Feature Analysis: Delve into fire resistance standards, water resistance ratings, different types of locking mechanisms, material and build quality, and appropriate size and capacity options for your needs.
  5. Factors to Consider When Choosing a Safe: Set a budget, identify specific needs and preferences, choose an appropriate installation location, and ensure good warranty and customer support.
  6. Maintenance and Care Tips: Regular inspections, proper cleaning and upkeep, and timely battery replacements for electronic locks help maintain the safe’s effectiveness.
  7. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Address common concerns and provide solutions for issues like forgotten combinations, safe relocation, and maintaining fireproof and waterproof features.

Final Recommendations

When choosing a fireproof and waterproof safe, prioritize the following:

  • Certifications and Ratings: Ensure the safe has valid certifications like UL 72 for fire resistance and ETL for water resistance. These ratings guarantee the safe has undergone rigorous testing and meets high safety standards.
  • Appropriate Size and Capacity: Select a safe that fits your storage needs without being too bulky for your space. Consider future storage needs as well.
  • Reliable Locking Mechanisms: Choose a locking mechanism that balances security with ease of use. Electronic keypads and biometric locks offer convenience, while combination locks provide traditional reliability.
  • Durable Construction: Opt for safes made from thick steel with robust construction and quality insulation materials to ensure durability and resistance to physical attacks.
  • Warranty and Support: Select a safe from a reputable manufacturer that offers a comprehensive warranty and responsive customer support. This ensures peace of mind and assistance if issues arise.

By carefully considering these factors and following the guidelines provided, you can choose a fireproof and waterproof safe that offers optimal protection for your valuables. Investing in a high-quality safe from a trusted brand like INKAS Safes ensures that your important possessions remain secure and protected from potential threats.